Attention & Targeting are base level concepts that are in effect with any cooperative work between dog and handler.
What if it’s not the failure of the dog to generalize the skill but the failure of the handler to teach the root concept of the skill in the first place? What if we as dog trainers are more often than not fostering a contextual understanding of behavior instead of a conceptual one?
Shapes are created by the position and movement of dog, handler, and disc. And shapes can be created by the dog, the handler, and the placement of the disc. Shapes are a fact of disc dog freestyle.
When the dog leaves the handler for a catch, that tends to create a line. When the dog is away from the handler and moves across the field to make a catch, as in a Zig Zag or Around the World, that tends to create a Shape.