It is important to understand that duration behaviors, have 2 components. Action then Duration.
Many clicker trainers have problems with duration because they are primarily focused on marking and reinforcing action. After the Action component has been performed there is really nothing left to mark. All that’s left to do is to reinforce and add value to the position. So after the marking of the Action there will be no additional marking as we pay the dog for duration.
If the handler does any marking of behavior during a Duration skill, it should be focused on good decisions made by the dog – starting to but deciding not to get up, for instance, unsolicited Unsolicited eye contact or Attention is a great way to hook up with a dog. If you have something the dog wants he should give eye contact in order to get access to it. This quickly becomes akin to asking permission for things that the dog wants. If your dog offers Attention when they see something they want, most dog..., perhaps, shifting to a more relaxed position, etc.
Excessive marking of behavior during duration behavior training tends to teach the dog that action makes things happen. This leads to fidgeting, superstitious behavior and general trouble in getting calm duration.
Seemingly simple behaviors can be broken down into many root concepts. We can mark and reinforce any or all of these root concepts so we can shape the behavior and/or to draw attention to them for use in the future. Spot training offers us several active root concepts that we can teach our dogs that will come in handy in other situations:
Acknowledgement of, interest in and/or Approach to the Spot.
- A dog’s working state can be said to be over or under Threshold. A dog that is over Threshold has trouble working. A dog that is under Threshold is in good shape to do work. Threshold is often the difference between Drive and Arousal. If your dog gets too high and winds up over Threshold then they move from Drive...
The physical boundaries that define the Spot is a “go to a place”, or “go to a mat” behavior. This means that the dog seeks out and performs a duration behavior on a spot of the handler’s choosing. A Pedestal is a raised spot. Anything a dog can leap onto and perch upon. Spots and Pedestals are important dog training tools.....
- Foot Target
Foot or feet on the spot.
- Any behavior performed until the handler wants it to stop is a Duration Behavior. Duration Behaviors have 3 parts. There is an action,”Yes!”. Then there is the duration part filled with Classical Conditioning goodness...while... Duration ends with the action of the Release Cue. Duration, by definition has a beginning and an end. If there is no end, there was no...
Stand, Sit or Down
Release from the Spot
All of these actions can be isolated and worked. Problems that we have with this behavior can be resolved by focusing on one or more of these root concepts.
Duration is a function of math.
You need to pay our dog at a rate of reinforcement that is guaranteed to keep the dog in position that the duration behavior requires. It is your responsibility as a handler to ensure that the dog maintains position.
In the spot training exercise, you’ll pay at a blistering rate of 1 reward per second initially in order to add value and maintain position. You’ll start to reduce the rate of reinforcement as the dog starts to desire to perform the skill.
Positive Markers mean something. You don’t have to mark to give a cookie.
The Release Defines Duration
Duration, as defined is the time between the beginning and the end. Many times, especially when working multiple dogs, the dog is never released from the duration behavior or frequently releases himself while the handler is distracted.
If you are not releasing our dogs from a behavior you are not working duration. It’s as simple as that. You’re simply adding or reducing value on the duration behavior depending on what happens after the dog breaks position.
Desire before Duration
The idea here is to create desire to perform a behavior before we go and ask for duration. We then use that desire to perform the behavior to our advantage by making the dog believe that performing the behavior is an opportunity.
“What? I get to do Spot now? Sweet!”
Compare and Contrast
Once the dog has a strong desire to perform a given behavior we are then able to compare and contrast the performance of that behavior with the non-performance of the behavior.
This is where many trainers blow it. We are so concerned with our dogs getting the behavior right – NOW! – that we fail to let them learn for themselves that doing this behavior is totally worth it.
When we cue a behavior that is not yet strong and nothing happens, that is the lesson.
The dog is able to compare and contrast the rapid fire reinforcement – 15-30 rewards per minute for correct performance with zip, nada, nothing for however long they are derelict in performing the behavior.